Treatment Of Kidney Stones

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Treatment Of Kidney Stones

Treatment of kidney stone disease depends on the size of the stone. If still relatively small, kidney stones can still be out through the urinary tract without surgery. The doctor will usually advise the patient to take the appropriate treatment step precautions, namely by drinking enough water every day. With continuous fluid flow, it is expected that small kidney stones can be pushed out by itself.

If only water is considered insufficient, the doctor may prescribe medication to help expel kidney stones, such as alpha blockers. This drug helps make the ureter muscles relax so that kidney stones can come out without causing pain and within a relatively fast time.

If the patient's symptoms are disturbing enough, doctors usually prescribe painkillers, such as paracetamol, ibuprofen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In addition to painkillers, doctors will also provide antiemetic drugs to treat the symptoms of nausea and vomiting.

Doctors will usually refer patients to the hospital if kidney stone disease has caused severe pain. This is especially necessary if the patient has other conditions (eg being pregnant, vomiting to cause dehydration, aged over 60 years, and having only one kidney). In addition, doctors will also usually refer patients to the hospital if the pain symptoms worsen despite being given pain medication.

Handling of kidney stones with surgery

Handling of kidney stones with new surgery will be applied if the stone is large (approximately 0.6 centimeters in diameter or more) thereby blocking the patient's urinary tract. The type of handling will depend on the location and size of the stone. The procedures for treating large kidney stones are:
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a procedure of destruction of kidney stones by using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound). Stone is crushed so that pieces can come out easily.
  • Ureteroscopy, the procedure of removing kidney stones using a device called ureteroscope is inserted into the ureter through the urethra and bladder. The urethra is the last channel for urine outflow from the bladder to the outside of the body. Once the location is known, the stone will be destroyed by using other instruments or lasers. Ureteroscopy is usually done to deal with stones that are trapped in the ureter.
  • Open surgery. In modern times as it is now, this procedure is actually quite rare and only done to remove the kidney stone is very large. As the name implies, open surgery is done by making an incision on the surface of the skin on the back that serves as an access for the surgeon in removing kidney stones.
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or abbreviated PCNL, the procedure of destruction of kidney stones. Small incisions are made on the surface of the skin near the kidneys so a device called a nephroscope can enter to break and remove the kidney stone fragments. This procedure is usually done if ESWL is not possible to do, eg in obese people.

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