Detecting Abnormal Cells Causes Of Cervical Cancer

Detecting Abnormal Cells Causes Of Cervical Cancer

The regular examination can detect abnormalities in cervical cells that can potentially develop into cancer.

Cervical cancer is one type of cancer in women that can be prevented by routine examination. The development of cervical cancer that originated from abnormal cells is a process that generally occurs without any symptoms. Most cases of cervical cancer only cause symptoms if cancer has reached the stage of further development. Therefore, the purpose of the routine examination is to "catch" abnormal cells that have the potential to become cancer or cervical cancer at an early stage.

Unusual Pap Smear Results
Pap smears or liquid-based cytology (LBC) is the most effective test for detecting cervical cancer. This test is recommended to be done once every three years for women aged 25-49 years and once every five years for women aged 50 years and over.

Generally, about 90% of Pap smears performed on women show normal results. Some of the abnormal results associated with changes in cervical cells can be categorized as follows:

Minor changes. The cell does not undergo significant changes and can return to normal by itself. However, you are advised to go through one of two alternatives:

HPV virus test.
Pap smear every six months as much as 2-3 times, to ensure the cell has returned to normal.
If HPV virus is detected or the following pap smear tests are still not normal, then you need to undergo colposcopy. If HPV is not detected or the following normal pap smear test, you will be advised to undergo re-examination three years later.

Medium to severe changes. If the changes that occur in the cell is significant, then the doctor will advise undergoing colposcopy examination. This procedure aims to confirm the presence of cells at risk of becoming cancer or called cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN).

Further treatment should be done if the test results found the presence of cancer cells in the cervix. You can read more about the treatment on the cervical cancer treatment page.

Colposcopy Examination
Colposcopy is an examination that uses a colposcope, a type of microscope, to see the whole cervix in more detail. This examination would be advisable if the pap smear results indicate an abnormal cervical cell or if the HPV probe proves positive.

Colposcopy is generally performed by a specialist within 15-20 minutes. To undergo this process, you will be asked to lie down with your legs wide open. Then, the doctor will insert a device called speculum to see the vaginal wall and cervix.

The doctor will probably use vinegar (acetic acid) or iodine (Lugol's solution) before so that abnormal cells can be seen more clearly. If found, then the doctor will take a sample of tissue. This process of taking is called a biopsy. These tissue samples will then be analyzed by microscope.

Colposcopy will generally result in the following possible outcomes:


  • CIN is not found in the cervical tissue after the iodine solution or vinegar is applied.
  • Vinegar or iodine shows abnormal cells but not CIN. Precisely what happens is due to infection or other disorders other than cervical cancer
  • After a biopsy, the sample did not show any abnormal cells.
  • Biopsy results indicate the presence of abnormal cells that could potentially be cervical cancer.
  • If the biopsy finds any abnormal cells with potentially cancer or CIN, further treatment is necessary.

Abnormal Cell Handling
The results of the examination can be categorized based on the thickness of the surface of the cervix that undergoes cell changes, namely:


  • Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ): a tissue removal procedure that contains abnormal cells using low-voltage spiral wires.
  • Conical biopsy: the procedure of lifting the cervical tissue section in a conical shape with a scalpel.
  • Trachelectomy or hysterectomy. Trachelectomy is the removal of the cervix or cervix, but the uterus remains in place. While a hysterectomy is surgical removal of the cervix and uterus completely.
Another method of handling abnormal cells is done in the following ways:

  • Laser therapy. Direct the laser beam directly to destroy the abnormal area of the cervix.
  • Coagulation / clotting . Use heat therapy to destroy abnormal cells.
  • Cryotherapy. Abnormal cells are destroyed by freezing. But this procedure is the least rarely performed because of its lowest effectiveness.
  • All of the above processes are run under the influence of local anesthesia or general anesthesia.

Generally, this handling successfully prevents the emergence of cancer service. However, in some cases, there is still the possibility of abnormal cells reappear. You are advised to undergo re-examination. If the abnormality is again detected, you need to go back to undergoing colposcopy and further treatment if necessary.

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