3 Theory of Entry of Islam into Indonesia and Supporting Evidence

Theory of Entry of Islam into Indonesia - The development of Islam in Indonesia took place very quickly. This certainly can not be separated from the role of Muslim traders from Gujarat (India), Persia, and Arab. The close relationship between Muslim traders and traders of the archipelago in the past caused an impact on the entry of Islam in Indonesia.

Theory of Entry of Islam to Indonesia

Geographically, Indonesia is located in a very strategic area in the trade channel of the past. This caused Islam to easily enter the territory of Indonesia. Then, when Islam first came to Indonesia. There are several theories about the entry of Islam into Indonesia. Such theories include Gujarat theory, Persian theory, and Arabic theory. Here is the exposure of each theory of the entry of Islam into Indonesia.

1. Gujarati Theory

The theory of Gujarat is the theory of the entry of Islam into Indonesia which was first proposed by Snouck Hurgronje and J. Pijnapel. In this theory mentioned that Islam in Indonesia actually comes from Gujarat, India and began to enter the 8th century AD. Islam enters Indonesia through the territories of the Indian sub-continent, such as Gujarat, Bengali, and Malabar. As it is known that the Indonesian nation at that time has indeed established trade relations with India through the channel of Indonesia-Cambay.

Based on this theory, the entry of Islam to Indonesia is believed to have originated from Gujarat because it is based on the existence of evidence of gravestone of Sultan Samudera Pasai Malik as-Saleh in the year 1297 of Gujarat. In addition, the theory of Gujarat is also based on the pattern of Islamic teachings that tend to have the color of Sufism. This teaching is practiced by Muslims in South India, similar to the teachings of Islam in Indonesia in the early development of Islam.

2. The Persian Theory

Persian theory is a theory of entry of Islam to Indonesia proposed by HoesseinDjajadiningrat. In this theory it is argued that Islam that goes to Indonesia is Islam that comes from Persia (Iran). Islam is believed to be carried by Persian traders beginning in the 12th century.

Persian theory is based on evidence of widespread Shi'ism in the early entry of Islam to Indonesia. In addition, there is a common cultural tradition of Persia with the culture of Indonesian Islamic society. The commemoration of 10 Muharram or Ashura days in Iran with Tabuik or Ark ceremonies in West Sumatra and Jambi as wandering people of Husein bin Ali bin Abi Talib who was killed in Karbala became one example. Even the strength of the Shiite tradition is still felt today.

The existence of Leran and Jawi tribes in Persia shows evidence that Persians who brought Islam to Indonesia. The tribe is allegedly referring to the Leran people of Gresik and the Javanese. In addition, the Javanese tribe is known for its Arabic or Arabian Pegonese writing tradition as adopted by the Persian society over the Arabic Writings. This is reinforced by the term Jer commonly used Persian society.

3. Arab Theory or Theory of Mecca

Based on Arab theory, the entry of Islam into Indonesia is believed to come from Arabia, namely Mecca and Medina in the century perama Hijriah or 7th century AD. This opinion is based on the evidence of Islamic settlement in Barus Beach, West Sumatra, known as Bandar Khalifah. This region is called the Ta-Shih region. Ta-Shih is the Chinese name for Arabs. This evidence is contained in a document from China written by Chu Fan Chi citing the notes of a geographer, Chou Ku-Fei. He said there was a voyage from the Ta-Shih area which is a 5-day trip to Java.

In the Chinese document the existence of Arab Muslim community in Barus Beach was recorded around 625 AD. Given that year, it means only nine years from the time span when the Prophet set the da'wah of Islam openly to the people of Mecca. Some friends have sailed and formed Islamic settlements in Sumatra. This voyage is very likely to occur mengingay existence of the command of the Prophet so that Muslims to study science into China. This means that Islam entered Indonesia when Rosululloh was alive.

Archaeological evidence is also found in Barus, an ancient tomb in the Mahligai cemetery complex, Barus. On one of his gravestones is written the name of Shaykh Rukunuddin who died in 672 AD Archaeologists from Ecole Francaise D'extreme-Orient France and the National Archaeological Research Center states that around the 9th century to 12 AD, Barus became a village of various tribes such as Arab, Aceh, India, China, Tamil, Java, Bugis, and Bengkulu.

Another evidence that supports the theory of the entry of Islam to Indonesia is the emergence of the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia, namely the Kingdom of Perlak is forwarded by the Kingdom of Samudra Pasai. The kingdom of Samudra Pasai is a Shafii-style kingdom which was then adopted by many Egyptians and Meccans.

Thus some theories of the entry of Islam into Indonesia as expressed by some experts. Know also how the process of entry of Islam into Indonesia through several channels in the next article. May be useful.

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